• 1.bestellen
  • 2.Warenkorb ändern
  • 3.zur Kassa gehen
Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 4-15https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-33-4-4
Boos, Tobias; Seidl, Gregor

Rise of the Latin American Middle Class – or (Statistical) Storm in a Teapot?

Fewer people living in poverty than in the ‘golden mean’ of society – Latin America has finally transformed itself into a middle class region. At least that is the opinion held by some World Bank officials. But how does this resonate with the still persisting and high inequality in Latin America? In which way does such an assessment relate to the Latin American left turn during the last decades? Furthermore, what are we actually referring to with middle class? And more generally, what ideas of society lurk behind the term?
This special issue tries to address some of these topics, attempting to interrogate this analysis of international development organisations as well as discourses and policies predominant during the pink tide in Latin America. The authors of this issue seek to put the spotlight on more meaningful concepts of the middle class and associated accounts of social realities in Latin America.

 

Artikel (digital)

Andere Artikel in dieser Ausgabe
Boris, Dieter

Aspekte von Mittelschichten in Lateinamerika heute

Sprache: DEUTSCHSeiten: 16-36https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-33-4-16
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

Dieser Artikel analysiert die Determinanten des Wachstums der Mittelschichten in Lateinamerika seit Beginn des neuen Jahrtausends, insbesondere während der relativ lang anhaltenden „Boom“-Periode von 2002 bis 2012/13. Davon ausgehend betrachtet er die innere Differenzierung und die Rolle dieser Mittelschichten zu Zeiten von Links- oder Mitte-links-Regierungen. Weiterhin geht er auf die beginnende Rezession 2013/14 in Lateinamerika ein und analysiert die damit verbundene partielle politische Umorientierung von Teilen der Mittelschichten. Am Ende des Beitrags finden sich theoretische und methodologische Reflexionen zur Konzeptualisierung von „Mittelschichten“ in Lateinamerika.

Adamovsky, Ezequiel (2013): ‚Clase media‘: reflexiones sobre los (malos) usos académicos de una categoría. In: Nueva Sociedad 247, 38-49.


Bárcena, Alicia/Serra, Narcis (Hg.) (2011): Clases medias y desarrollo en América Latina. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL-CIDOB.


Barozet, Emmanuelle/Fierro, Jaime (2011): Die Mittelschicht in Chile. Merkmale und Entwicklungen 1990–2011. In: KAS Auslandsinformationen 12, 26-43.


Behrens, Benedikt (2013): Eine unvorhergesehene Revolte. Protest in Brasilien. In: WeltTrends 92, 16-21.


Blanke, Svenja/Quiroga, Yesko (2013): Das demokratische Brodeln in Brasilien. In: Neue Gesellschaft /Frankfurter Hefte 10, 19-21.

 
Boris, Dieter (2008): Sozialstrukturen in Lateinamerika. In: Boris, Dieter et al. (Hg.): Sozialstrukturen in Lateinamerika. Ein Überblick. Wiesbaden: Springer, 9-43.


Boris, Dieter (2009): Lateinamerikas Politische Ökonomie. Aufbruch aus historischen Abhängigkeiten im 21. Jahrhundert? Hamburg: VSA.


Boris, Dieter (2014): Bolívars Erben. Linksregierungen in Lateinamerika. Köln: Papyrossa.
Boron, Atilio A. (2015): Argentina 2015: Claves de una derrota. El poder de la crítica y la crítica del poder. www.rebelión.org/phd?id=207117, 23.12.2015.


Busch, Alexander (2010): Wirtschaftsmacht Brasilien. Der grüne Riese erwacht. Bonn: Carl Hanser.


CEPAL (2011): Panorama social de América Latina. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL.


CEPAL (2013a): Estudio económico de América Latina y el Caribe 2013. Tres décadas de crecimiento desigual e inestable. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL.


CEPAL (2013b): Panorama social de América Latina 2012. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL.


CEPAL (2017) : Panorama social de América Latina 2016. Santiago de Chile: CEPAL.


Cornia, Giovanni Andrea (2015): Income Inequality in Latin America. Recent decline and prospects for its further reduction. Wider Working Paper 2015/020.


De Riz, Liliana (2010): La clase media argentina: conjeturas para interpretar el papel de las clases medias en los procesos políticos. In: Paramio, Ludolfo (Hg.): Clases medias y gobernabilidad en América Latina. Madrid: Pablo Iglesias, 69-101.


Del Cueto, Carla/Luzzi, Mariana (2010) Betrachtungen über eine fragmentierte Gesellschaft. Veränderungen der argentinischen Sozialstruktur (1983–2008). In: Birle, Peter et al. (Hg.): Argentinien heute. Politik, Wirtschaft, Kultur. Frankfurt/M: Iberoamericana, 33-54.


Ferreira, Francisco H.G. et al. (2013): La movilidad económico y el crecimiento de la clase media en América Latina, Washington, D.C.: Banco Mundial. https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-9752-7


Franco, Rolando et al. (2011): Crece y cambia la clase media en América Latina: una puesta al día. In: Revista CEPAL 103, 7-26.


Franco, Rolando/Hopenhayn, Martín/León, Arturo (Hg., 2010): Clases medias en América Latina. Retrospectiva y nuevas tendencias México D.F.: Siglo XXI.


Groisman, Fernando (2013): Income polarization, the middle class and informal employment in the greater Buenos Aires. In: CEPAL Review 109.


Hidalgo, Manuel (2010): Clase media y conflictos sociopolíticos en Venezuela (1998–2009). In: Paramio, Ludolfo (Hg.): Clases medias y gobernabilidad en América Latina. Madrid: Pablo Iglesias, 265-301.


Hoffmann, Karl-Dieter (2012): Armut, soziale Ungleichheit und conditional cash transfer-Programme in Lateinamerika. In: KAS Auslandsinformationen 5, 100-131.


Hopenhayn, Martín (2010): Como ha cambiado la clase media en América Latina? Elementos par el debate. In: Paramio, Ludolfo (Hg.): Clases medias y gobernabilidad en América Latina. Madrid: Pablo Iglesias, 25-57.


Jost, Stefan (2014): Mittelschichten in Lateinamerika: Zwischen medialem Hype und differenzierter Analyse. In: KAS Auslandsinformationen 10, 8-33.


Kessler, Gabriel (2010): Hell und Dunkel – die Sozialstruktur Argentiniens im Wandel. In: Nueva Sociedad (Sonderheft Okt. 2010), 36-52.


Kessler, Gabriel/Di Virgilio, Maria Mercedes (2008): ‚Neue Armut‘ und Mittelschichten in Lateinamerika und Argentinien. In: Boris, Dieter et al. (Hg.): Sozialstrukturen in Lateinamerika. Wiesbaden: Springer, 95-119.


Krein, José Dari/Luis dos Santos, Anselmo (2012): La formalización del trabajo en Brasil. In: Nueva Sociedad 239, 90-101.


Leubolt, Bernhard/Tittor, Anne (2008): Semi-periphere Sozialstaatlichkeit in Lateinamerika – Argentinien und Brasilien im historischen Vergleich. In: Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, 24 (2), 116-141. https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-24-2-116


López-Calva, Luis F./Lustig, Nora (Hg., 2010): Declining inequality in Latin America. A decade of progress? New York/Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution.


Manz, Thomas (2016): Brasilianischer Herbst. Ende der Ära PT oder Krise des politischen Systems? Berlin, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.


Matthäus, Christian/Zeller, Kathrin (2014): Brasiliens neue Mittelschicht. Gekommen, um zu bleiben? In: KAS Auslandsinformationen 10, 34-89.


Palomino, Héctor/Pastrana, Ernesto (2013): Argentina: en busca de un nuevo modelo de desarrollo. In: Araníbar Arze, Antonio Rodríguez, Benjamín (Hg.): América Latina. ¿Del neoliberalismo al neodesarrollismo? Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI, 147-182.


Paramio, Ludolfo (Hg., 2010): Clases medias y gobernabilidad en América Latina, Madrid: Pablo Inglesias.


Russau, Christian (2014): Die Juni-Proteste. In: Dilger, Gerhard et al. (Hg.): Fußball in Brasilien: Widerstand und Utopie, Hamburg: VSA, 146-158.


Santana, Bianca/Silva, Daniela B. (2013): Brasil: ‚No es por 0,20. Es por los derechos‘. In: Nueva Sociedad 247, 4-15.


Schützhofer, Timm Benjamin (2016): Keine Petrodollars, kein Wachstum, kein Handlungsspielraum. Herausforderungen für Ecuadors Fiskalpolitik am Beispiel der Erbschaftssteuer. In: Hawel, Marcus (Hg): Work in progress. Jahrbuch 2016. Hamburg: VSA, 103-119.


Stefanoni, Pablo (2012): Postneoliberalismo cuesta arriba. In: Nueva Sociedad 239, 51-64.
Tavares de Almeida, Maria Hermínia/Nunes de Oliveira, Emmanoel (2010): Nuevas capas medias y política en Brasil. In: Paramio, Ludolfo (Hg.): Clases medias y gobernabilidad en América Latina. Madrid: Pablo Iglesias, 103-118.


Valente, Marcela (2013): Lateinamerika auf dem Weg zu mehr sozialer Gleichheit. https://amerika21.de/analyse/90435/mehr-soziale-gleichheit, 7.10.2013.


Wehr, Ingrid (2011): Wohlfahrtsregime und soziale Ungleichheit in Lateinamerika. In: Wehr, Ingrid/Burchardt, Hans-Jürgen (Hg.): Soziale Ungleichheiten in Lateinamerika. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 257-281. https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845229614-257


Wehr, Ingrid/Burchardt, Hans-Jürgen (Hg., 2011): Soziale Ungleichheiten in Lateinamerika. Neue Perspektiven auf Wirtschaft, Politik und Umwelt, Baden-Baden: Nomos.


Werz, Nikolaus (1999): Das Konzept der ‚clase media‘ und die Mittelschichten in Lateinamerika. In: Becker, Bert et al. (Hg.): Mythos Mittelschichten. Zur Wiederkehr eines Paradigmas in der Demokratieforschung. Bonn: Bouvier, 96-119.


Wortman, Ana (2010): Las clases medias argentinas, 1960–2008. In: Franco, Rolando et al. (Hg.): Las clases medias en América Latina. Retrospectiva y nuevas tendencias. México: CEPAL, 117-167.

Mittelschichten, Lateinamerika, Sozialstruktur, Linksregierungen

Boos, Tobias

Pact of Consumption – Kirchnerism and the Argentinian Middle Class

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 37-62https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-33-4-37
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

The debate about an adequate characterisation of the pink tide governments in Latin America has gained new momentum since the so-called progressive cycle seems to have come to an end. One of the most recent debates is inspired by the term pacto de consumo (pact of consumption). The main argument here is that the progressive governments have been able to raise the level of consumption of the popular classes and the (lower) middle classes. This article examines the hypothesis of a pact of consumption in the case of the Argentinian middle class and the Kirchnerist governments. The article argues, firstly, for a historic-relational concept of class, linking it through the regulationist term of mode of consumption to an intermediate level. Based on this notion of class, the article, secondly, explores the government´s strategies regarding expanding the consumption capacities of the middle class. Thirdly, it takes up the example of energy subsidies to show how the pact of consumption fostered by Kirchnerism should rather be understood as a reciprocal process of hegemonic integration than a unidirectional strategy from above.

Adamovsky, Ezequiel (2012): Historia de la clase media argentina. Buenos Aires: Planeta


Adamovsky, Ezequiel (2013): «Clase media»: reflexiones sobre los (malos) usos académicos de una categoría. In: Nueva Sociedad 247, 38-49.


Aglietta, Michel (2000): A Theory of Capitalist Regulation. London; New York: Verso.


Arceo, Enrique/Basualdo, Eduardo/Arceo, Nicolás (2009): La crisis mundial y el conflicto del agro. Buenos Aires: La Página.


ASAP-Asociación argentina de presupuesto (2015): Los subsidios energéticos en argentina. http://www.asap.org.ar/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Subsidios_asap_iae.pdf, 04.05.2016.
Balsa, Javier (2006a): Las tres lógicas de la construcción de la hegemonía. In: Theomai 14, 16–36.


Balsa, Javier (2010): Hegemonía y lenguaje. Paper: Jornadas Debates Actuales de la Teoría Política Contemporánea 2010, Buenos Aires. http://jjbalsa.blog.unq.edu.ar/modules/docmanager/view_file.php?curent_file=8&curent_dir=8, 23.6.2013.


Barrett, Patrick/Chavez, Daniel/Rodríguez-Garavito, César (2008): The New Latin American Left: Utopia Reborn. London: Pluto Press.


Birdsall, Nancy (2012): A note on the middle class in Latin America. In: Inequality in Asia and the Pacific (Manila: Asian Development Bank, 2013). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2226504, 20.3.2015.


Bonnet, Alberto R. (2010): El lock-out agrario y la crisis política del kirchnerismo. In: Herramienta web 6. http://www.herramienta.com.ar/herramienta-web-6/el-lock-out-agrario-y-la-crisis-politica-del-kirchnerismo, 15.07.2013.


Boos, Tobias (2015): Hegemonía y prácticas cotidianas: la relación entre kirchnerismo y la clase media. Paper: III Congreso Latinoamericano y Caribe-o de Ciencias Sociales, 26-28 de agosto 2015 Sede Académica de FLACSO Ecuador, Quito.


Boos, Tobias (2017): Between structure and identity – Gramsci´s modo de ser y de vivir as a key concept to analyze the pact of consumption between Kirchnerism and the Argentinian middle class. Paper: V Seminario-Taller 2017, CIS/IDES-CONICET, 24.-27.04.2017, Buenos Aires.


Brand, Ulrich (2016): Lateinamerikas Linke: Ende eines Zyklus? Hamburg: VSA.


Brand, Ulrich/Dietz, Kristina (2014): (Neo-)Extraktivismus als Entwicklungsoption? In: Politische Vierteljahresschrift, Special Issue 48/2014 on Theories of Development, Baden-Baden: Nomos, 88–125.


Brand, Ulrich/Sekler, Nikola (2009): Postneoliberalism. A beginning debate. Development Dialogue 51. Uppsala: Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation.


Brand, Ulrich/Wissen, Markus (2012): Global Environmental Politics and the Imperial Mode of Living. In: Globalizations 9 (4), 547–560. https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2012.699928
Castagno, Pablo (2015): Inside Latinamericanism. In: Historical Materialism, 23 (1), 243–264. https://doi.org/10.1163/1569206X-12341393


CIFRA/CTA (2015): Documento de trabajo no 14 la naturaleza política y la trayectoria económica de los gobiernos kirchneristas.


del Cueto/Luzzi (2016): Salir a comprar. In: Kessler, Gabriel (ed.): La sociedad argentina hoy. Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno/Fundación OSDE, 209-232.


Diaz Rosaenz, Micaela (2017): El consumo como dimensión de la ciudadanía contemporánea: Análisis a partir de los discursos presidenciales de Argentina y Brasil (2003-2015). Paper: 4th Congreso Latinoamericano y Caribe-o de Ciencias Sociales 17.-19.7 2017, Salamanca, Spain.
Evelin Goldstein/Matías Kulfas/Diego Margulis/Guido Zack (2016): Efectos macroeconómicos del sector energético en la Argentina en el período 2003-2014. In: Realidad Económica 298, 32-52.


Ferreira, Francisco/et al. (2013): Economic Mobility and the Rise of the Latin American Middle Class. The World Bank.


Figueiro, Pablo (2013): Lógicas sociales del consumo. Buenos Aires: UNSAM EDITA.
Gago, Veronica. (2015): Financialization of Popular Life and the Extractive Operations of Capital. In: South Atlantic Quarterly 114 (1), 11–28. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-2831257


Gago, Verónica/Sztulwark, Diego (2016): The Temporality of Social Struggle at the End of the "Progressive" Cycle in Latin America. In: South Atlantic Quarterly 115 (3), 606–614. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-3608664


Giarracca, Norma/Palmisano, Tomás (2012): Soja-Expansion und Agrarstreik. In: Forschungs- und Dokumentationszentrum Chile-Lateinamerika/Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung (eds.): Der Neue Extraktivismus. Berlin: FDCL-Verlag, 66-81.


Gold, Tomás (2015): Cacerolazos y legitimidad política en la Argentina reciente. Del "13-S" al "8-A". In: Annunziata, Rocío (ed.): Pensar las elecciones. Buenos Aires: CLACSO, 182-210.
Grugel, Jean/Riggirozzi, Pía (2012): Post-Neoliberalism in Latin America: Rebuilding and Reclaiming the State after Crisis. In: Development and Change 43 (1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.2011.01746.x


Grüner, Eduardo (2011): Se está poniendo en debate si se está a favor o en contra del capitalismo en la Argentina. In: IPS-blog de debate. http://www.ips.org.ar/?p=3333, 20.9.2012.


Gudynas, Eduardo (2009): Diez tesis urgentes sobre el nuevo extractivismo. In: Schuldt, Jürgen et al. (eds.): Extractivismo, política y sociedad. Quito: CAAP/CLAES, 187–225.
Infobae 31/05/2013: Militantes políticos ya recorren supermercados para controlar precios. http://www.infobae.com/2013/05/31/713396-militantes-politicos-ya-recorren-supermercados-controlar-precios, 1.6.2016.


Infobae 26/3/2015: Por cadena nacional, Cristina Kirchner hizo anuncios para fomentar el consume. http://www.infobae.com/2015/03/26/1718349-por-cadena-nacional-cristina-kirchner-hizo-anuncios-fomentar-el-consumo, 1.11.2016.


Jäger, Johannes/Leubolt, Bernhard/Schmidt, Lukas (2014): Alles Extraktivismus in Südamerika? Rohstoffrenten und Politik in Brasilien, Chile und Venezuela. Journal für Entwicklungspolitik (JEP) 30 (3), 9-26. https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-30-3-9
Kessler, Gabriel/Virgilio, María Mercedes Di (2010): Impoverishment of the Middle Class in Argentina: The "New Poor" in Latin America. In: Laboratorium: Russian Review of Social Research 2 (2), 200–220.


Kulfas, Matías (2016): Los tres kirchnerismos: Una historia de la economía argentina, 2003-2015. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI.


Macdonald, Laura/Ruckert, Anne (eds., 2009): Post-Neoliberalism in the Americas: Beyond the Washington Consensus? London: Routledge.


Modonesi, Massimo (2015): The End of Progressive Hegemony and the Regressive Turn in Latin America: The End of a Cycle? In: Viewpoint Magazine. https://viewpointmag.com/2015/12/21/the-end-of-progressive-hegemony-and-the-regressive-turn-in-latin-america-the-end-of-a-cycle/, 25.1.2016.


Mora Araujo, Manuel (2002): La estructura social de la Argentina. Santiago de Chile: Naciones Unidas, CEPAL, División de Desarrollo Social.


Natanson, José (2016): El factor consumo. In: LeMonde Cono Sur 205.


NOAnomics (2014): Informe de Coyuntura Federal. El endeudamiento de las familias argentinas. http://www.noanomics.com/p/informes.html, 24.01.2016.


Philip, George/Panizza, Francisco (2011): The Triumph of Politics: The Return of the Left in Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador. Cambridge: Polity Press.


Piva, Adrián (2015): Economía y política en la Argentina kirchnerista. CABA: Batalla de Ideas.
Piva, Adrian (2016): La conformación de una "norma deconsumo" internacionalizada entre las "clases medias". Paper: IX Jornadas de Sociología de la UNLP, 7.12 2016.


PNA- Presidencia de la Nación Argentina (2003): Discurso del senor presidente de la Nacion, doctor Néstor Kirchner, ante la Honorable asamblea legislative. http://www.casarosada.gob.ar/informacion/archivo/24414-blank-18980869, 17.10.2016.


PNA- Presidencia de la Nación Argentina (2013a): Discurso de la presidenta cristina fernandez de kirchner al inaugurar el 131° periodo de sesiones ordinarias del congreso. http://www.casarosada.gob.ar/informacion/archivo/26370-inauguracion-del-131o-periodo-de-sesiones-ordinarias-del-congreso-discurso-de-la-presidenta-de-la-nacion, 17.10.2016.


PNA- Presidencia de la Nación Argentina (2013b): Palabras de Cristina Fernández de Kirchner en el lanzamiento de campa-a Mirar para cuidar. http://www.cfkargentina.com/lanzamiento-del-plan-mirar-para-cuidar/, 01.11.2016.


Sader, Emir (2009): Postneoliberalism in Latin America. In: Development Dialogue 51: 171-180.


Sader, Emir (2011): The new mole: paths of the Latin American left. London; New York: Verso.
Svampa, Maristella (2012): Resource Extractivism and Alternatives: Latin American Perspectives on Development. In: Journal für Entwicklungspolitik XXVIII (3), 43-73. https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-28-3-43


Svampa, Maristella (2010): La sociedad excluyente: la Argentina bajo el signo del neoliberalismo. Buenos Aires: Taurus.


Télam 01/08/13: Se realizó la séptima jornada de la campa-a "Mirar para cuidar". http://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201308/27275-la-septima-jornada-de-la-campana-nacional-mirar-para-cuidar.html [1.6.2016].


Télam 21/11/2015: El programa "Ahora 12" superó los $38.900 millones en ventas. http://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201511/127862-ahora-12-ventas-millonarias.html, 30.5.2016.
Thompson, E. P. (2002): The Making of the English Working Class. UK: Penguin.


Thwaites Rey, Mabel/Ouvi-a, Hernan (2016): Tensiones hegemónicas en la Argentina reciente. In: Oliver, Lucio (ed): Transformaciones recientes del estado integral en América latina. UNAM: Ediciones La Biblioteca


TV Pública Argentina (2015): Visión 7 - Espacio para los consumidores 11-09-15. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=12&v=qgPBMolSV-o, 30.5.2016.
Visacovsky, Sergio (2012): Experiencias de descenso social: percepción de fronteras sociales e identidad de clase media en la Argentina post-crisis. In: Pensamiento Iberoamericano 10, 133–168.


Visacovsky, Sergio (2008): Estudios sobre "clase media" en la antropología social. In: Avá 13.
Webber, Jeffery R. (2015a): Bolivia's Passive Revolution. In: Jacobin. https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/10/morales-bolivia-chavez-castro-mas, 21.12.2015.


Webber, Jeffery R. (2015b). Managing Bolivian Capitalism. In: Jacobin. https://www.jacobinmag.com/2014/01/managing-bolivian-capitalism/, 21.12.2015.


Webber, Jeffery R. (2017): The Last Day of Oppression, and the First Day of the Same: The Politics and Economics of the New Latin American Left. London: Haymarket Books.


Webber, Jeffery R./Carr, Barry (2012): The New Latin American Left: Cracks in the Empire. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.


Wood, Ellen Meiksins (2000): Democracia contra capitalismo: la renovación del materialismo histórico. Siglo XXI.


Wortman, Ana (2010): Las clases medias argentina 1960-2008. In: Franco, Rolando/Hopenhayn, Martín/León, Arturo (eds., 2010): Las clases medias en América Latina. México: Siglo Veintiuno Ediciones.


Wright, Erik Olin (1997): Classes. London; New York: Verso.


Yates, J. S., and K. Bakker. 2014. Debating the 'post-neoliberal turn' in Latin America. In: Progress in Human Geography 38, 62–90. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132513500372

 

middle class, Kirchnerism, pact of consumption, progressive cycle, Latin America

Melo, Jairo Baquero

Middle Classes and Rurality: The Expansion of Urban Middle Classes and New Social Inequalities in Colombia

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 63-84https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-33-4-63
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

In this article I analyse the relationship between rurality and middle classes. Few recent studies on middle classes have examined the role of rurality within middle class expansion processes at the global scale. I conducted a critical analysis of rurality and the middle classes in light of a recent proliferation of studies on global middle classes. This proliferation may be reflective of an evolving political and academic discourse within mainstream institutions, aimed at promoting the expansion of urban middle classes. Consequently, a critical analysis of this political and academic discourse attending to the various impacts of the expansion of urban middle classes on nature, and on rural areas and populations, is required. I applied mixed research methods in a case study of Colombia. The results indicated a paradox inherent in the expansion of middle classes. On the one hand, this expansion is aimed at reducing general social inequalities, and yet, on the other hand, it increases rural (and urban–rural) inequalities. Moreover, the expansion of urban middle classes reproduces land concentration and has negative impacts on nature. Concurrently, connections between urban and rural populations, along with new ruralities encompassing urban middle class populations, are evolving under the banner of sustainability. These trends reflect the complexity of structures of inequality in the connections between rural and urban populations.

Angulo, Roberto/Gaviria, Alejandro/Morales, Liliana (2014): La Década Ganada: Evolución de la Clase Media, la Pobreza y la Vulnerabilidad en Colombia 2002–2011. Bogotá: Fedesarrollo.


Banerjee, Abhijit/Duflo, Esther (2008): What is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World? In: Journal of Economic Perspectives 22 (2), 3-41. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.22.2.3


Berry, Albert (2014): Aspectos Jurídicos, Políticos y Económicos de la Tragedia de la Colombia Rural de las Últimas Décadas: Hipótesis para el Análisis. In: Revista Estudios Socio-Jurídicos 16 (1), 8-24.


Binswanger-Mkhize, Hans/Johnson, Timothy/Samboko, Paul Chimuka/You, Liangzhi (2016): The Impact of Urban Growth on Agricultural and Rural Non-Farm Growth in Kenya. Ithaca:
Tata-Cornell Institute for Agriculture and Nutrition (TCI).


Borras Jr., Saturnino/Franco, Jeniffer/Gómez, Sergio/Kay, Cristobal/Spoor, Max (2012): Land Grabbing in Latin America and the Caribbean. In: Journal of Peasant Studies, 39 (3-4), 845-72.


Chakrabarty, Dipesh (2009): Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


El Instituto para el Desarrollo Rural de Sudamérica [IPDRS] (2017): La Juventud Rural en Colombia y sus Condiciones de Acceso y Permanencia en la Tierra. http://comosoc.org/La-juventud-rural-en-Colombia-y., 1.11.2017.


Pérez, Diego (2016): Ecoaldeanos: El Futuro es Wolver al Pasado. In: El Tiempo, 1.12.2016.
Gayo, Modesto/Teitelboim, Berta/Méndez. Maria L. (2013): Exclusividad y Fragmentación: Los Perfiles Culturales de la Clase Media en Chile. In: Universum (Talca) 28 (1), 97-128. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-23762013000100006


Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) (2017), Colombia. http://www.internal-displacement.org/countries/colombia. , 1.11.2017.


Johansen, Pia H./Thuesen, Annette A. (2011): Det, der Betyder Noget for Livet på Landet: En Undersøgelse af Positiv Landdistriksudvikling i Form af Befolkningsfremgang i et Landsogn i Hver af de Fem Regioners Yderområder. Esbjerg: Institut for Forskning og Udvikling i Landdistrikter. Syddansk Universitet.


Johansen, Pia H./Nielsen, Niels C. (2012): Bridging between the Regional Degree and the Community Approaches to Rurality – A Suggestion for a Definition of Rurality for Everyday Use. In: Land Use Policy 29 (4), 781-788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2011.12.003


Joshi, Sanjay (2010): Introduction. In: Joshi, Sanjay (ed.): The Middle Class in Colonial India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, xxii–xxiii. https://doi.org/10.1332/policypress/9781847424761.003.0001


Kocka, Jürgen (1980): White Collar Workers in America, 1890-1940: A Social-Political History in International Perspective. Vol. 10. Thousand Oaks: SAGE.


Krishna, Sankaran (2015): Notes on the Dramatic Career of a Concept: The Middle Class, Democracy, and the Anthropocene. In: Alternatives 40 (1), 3-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0304375415581245


Quintero, Andrés (2016): Cinco Sementeras Invierten $4 Billones para Renovar Plantas In: La República, 21th September 2016. https://www.larepublica.co/empresas/cinco-cementeras-invierten-4-billones-para-renovar-plantas-2423276, 1.11.2017.


Lipton, Michael/Saghai, Yashar (2017): Food Security, Farmland Access Ethics, and Land Reform. In: Global Food Security 12, 59-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2016.03.004


Llambí, Luis/Pérez, E. (2007): Nuevas Ruralidades y Viejos Campesinismos. Agenda para una nueva Sociología Rural Latinoamericana. In: Cuadernos de Desarrollo Rural 59: 37-61.


Lopez-Calva, Luis/Ortiz-Juarez, Eduardo. (2011): A Vulnerability Approach to the Definition of the Middle Class. In: Policy Research Working Paper Series 5902, Washington: World Bank.


Luxemburg, Rosa (2003 [1919]: The Accumulation of Capital. Abingdon: Routledge.


Marx, Karl (1986 [1867]): Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. The Process of Production of Capital. Vol. 1. Moscow: Progress Publishers.


Miazzo, David/Pisani, Nicolle P. (2015): Carnes Argentinas: Actualidad, Propuestas y Futuro. Buenos Aires: Fundación Agropecuaria para el Desarrollo de Argentina - FADA.


Neubert, Dieter (2014): What is “Middle Class”? In Search of an Appropriate Concept. Middle East–Topics & Arguments 2, 23-35.


OECD/IEA (2014): Statistics of Energy Use. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.PCAP.KG.OE, 1.11.2017.


Parsons, Talcott (1940): An Analytical Approach to the Theory of Social Stratification. American Journal of Sociology 45 (6), 841-862. https://doi.org/10.1086/218489


Patnaik, Utsa (2012): Capitalism and the Production of Poverty. In: Social Scientist 40 (1/2), 3-20.


Pérez, Edelmira/Farah, María A. (2006): La nueva Ruralidad en Colombia. Bogotá: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.


Piketty, Thomas (2014): Capital in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Portafolio (2015): “Somos un país de clase media”, Juan Manuel Santos. http://www.portafolio.co/economia/finanzas/pais-clase-media-juan-manuel-santos-40942, 12.5.2015, 1.11.2017.


Reardon, Thomas/Berdegué, Julio/Esobar, Germán (2001): Rural Nonfarm Employment and Incomes in Latin America: Overview and Policy Implications. In: World Development 29 (3), 395-409. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(00)00112-1


Savage, Mike (2015): Social Class in the 21st Century. London: Penguin Books.


Shimeles, Abebe/Ncube, Mthuli (2015): The Making of the Middle-Class in Africa: Evidence from DHS Data. In: Journal of Development Studies 51 (2), 178-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2014.968137


Stampini, Marco/Robles, Marcos/Sáenz, Maira/Ibarrarán, Pablo/Medellín, Nadín (2015): Pobreza, Vulnerabilidad y la Clase Media en América Latina (No. IDB-WP-591). Washington: IDB Working Paper Series.


United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] (2011). Informe Nacional de Desarrollo Humano. Colombia Rural: Razones para la Esperanza. Bogotá: UNDP.


Weber, Max (1978 [1922]): Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Vol. 1. Berkley: University of California Press.


Wright, Erik O. (1979): Class Structure and Income Determination. Vol. 2. New York: Academic Press.


Wright, Erik Olin (1997): Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Zamosc, León (1992): Transformaciones Agraria y Luchas Campesinas en Colombia: Un Balance Retrospectivo (1950-1990). In: Análisis Político 15: 35-66.

 

middle classes, rurality, environment, land distribution, social inequalities

Fleury, Sonia

Forging a New Middle Class in Emerging Democracies

Sprache: ENGLISCHSeiten: 85-109https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-33-4-85
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

The article details the production of a narrative about the New Middle Class (NMC) that is recently articulated in academic articles (see among others Neri 2016) and promotes a perspective disseminated by the World Bank, OECD, and The Economist. This narrative also supports governmental strategy to fight poverty. Fighting poverty has been on the Brazilian political agenda since the democratisation process began. However, there are different strategies to deal with this situation, one of which is specified in the Federal Constitution in terms of universal social rights for citizens’ status. The other is based on increasing the consumption power of the poor and is identified by the label of the NMC policies. Each of them has different consequences in terms of subjectivity and sociability.

Bourdieu, Pierre (1990): The Logic of Practice. Stanford: Stanford University Press.


Bourdieu, Pierre (1974): A Economia das Trocas Simbólicas. São Paulo: Editora Perspectiva.
Castells, Manuel/Himanen, Pekka (eds.) (2104): Reconceptualizing Development in the Global Information Age. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Cerqueira, Daniel et al. (2017): Atlas da Violência 2017. Brasília: IPEA. http://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/swstatic-190509024504/swstatic-190521035302/images/170609_atlas_da_violencia_2017.pdf, 3. 10. 2017.


Cheeseman, Nic (2014): Does the African middle-class defend democracy? Working Paper 150. Afrobarometer. www.afrobarometer.org, 22. 11. 2016.


Castellani, Francesca/Parent, Gwenn (2011): Being “Middle-class” in Latin America, Working Paper No. 305. Paris: OECD.


Costa, Lucia (2013): Classes Médias e as Desigualdades sociais no Brasil. In: Bartelt, Dawid (ed.): A Nova Classe Média como Conceito e Projeto Político. Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Heinrich Böll, 43-54.


ECLAD (2014): Compacts for Equality Towards a Sustainable Future. Santiago: ECLAD.
Fleury, Sonia (2003): La Expansión de la Ciudadanía in Seminario International Inclusión Social y Nuevas Ciudadanías. Bogotá: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 167-194.


Fleury, Sonia (2011): Brazil’s health-care reform: social movements and civil society. In: The Lancet 377 (9779), 1724-1725.


Fleury, Sonia (2013a) A Fabricação da Classe Média: Projeto Político para uma Nova Sociabilidade in Dawid Bartelt (ed.): A Nova Classe Média como Conceito e Projeto Político, Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Heinrich Böll, 69-83.


Fleury, Sonia et al. (2013b). Right to Health in Latin America: Beyond Universalization. Series Financing for Development No. 249. Santiago: ECALD.


Fleury, Sonia (2013c): Seminar “The Favela is the City”. www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKYULpmrRaI, 8. 3. 2014.


Fleury, Sonia (2014): Building Democracy in an Emerging Society: Challenges of the Welfare State in Brazil. In: Nederveen Pieterse, Jan/Cardoso, Adalberto (eds.): Brazil Emerging – Inequality and Emancipation. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60318-8


Ferreira, Francisco H. G./Messina, Julian/Rigolini, Jamele/López Calva, Luis-Felipe/ Lugo, Maria Ana/Vakis, Renos (2013): Economic Mobility and the rise of the Latin America Middle-Class. Washington DC: World Bank. Fundação Perseu Abramo


Fundação Perseu Abramo (2017): Percepções e Valores Políticos nas Periferias de São Paulo. https://fpabramo.org.br/2017/03/25/percepcoes-na-periferia-de-sao-paulo/, 12. 5. 2017.
FOCUS - Institute for Research on Poverty (2010): Middle Class in Latin America. In: FOCUS 27 (1), 1-9.


IPEA (2015): Nota técnica PNAD 2014. http://www.ipea.gov.br/portal/swstatic-190509024504/swstatic-190521035302/images/stories/PDFs/nota_tecnica/151230_nota_tecnica_pnad2014.pdf, 15. 8. 2016.


Kerstenetzky, Celia Lessa/Uchôa, Christiane/Valle Silva, Nelson do. (2015): The Elusive New Middle Class in Brazil In: Brazilian Political Science Review 9 (3). http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bpsr/v9n3/1981-3821-bpsr-9-3-0021.pdf, 2. 5. 2016.


Kharas, Homi (2010): The Emerging Middle-Class in Developing Countries. Working Paper 285. Paris: OECD.


Koo, Hagen (1991): Middle classes, democratization, and class formation: The case of South Korea. Theory and Society 20 (4): 485-509. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00157323
Lavinas, Lena (2013): 21st Century Welfare. In: New Left Review 84, 5-40.


Leventoglu, Bahar (2014): Social Mobility, Middle-class and Political Transitions. In: Journal of Conflict Resolution 58 (5), 825-864. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002713478563


Nederveen Pieterse, Jan/Cardoso, Adalberto (2014): Brazil Emerging – Inequality and Emancipation. London: Routledge.


Neri, Marcelo (2010): A Nova Classe Média: O Lado Brilhante dos Pobres. Rio de Janeiro: FGV/CPS. http://www.fgv.br/cps/ncm/, 2. 3. 2016.


Ozdubu, Ergun (2005): The Role of the Middle-class in the Emergence and Consolidation of a Democratic Civil Society. In: Ankara Law Review 2 (2), 95-107.


Pinho, Carlos/Moura, Rafael (2017): O Brasil nos contextos internacional e doméstico: Crises e Resiliência do Neoliberalismo 2003. In: Revista Brasileira de Administração Política 9 (2), 89-134.


Pochman, Marcio (2012): Nova classe Média – o Trabalho na Base da Pirâmide Social Brasileira. São Paulo: Boitempo.


Przeworski, Adam/Limongi, Fernando (1993): Political Regimes and Economic Growth. In: The Journal of Economic Perspectives 7 (3), 51-69. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.7.3.51


Quadros, Waldir (2015): Paralisia econômica, retrocesso social e eleições. Textos para discussão 249. São Paulo: UNICAMP


Secretaria do Tesouro Nacional (2015): Gasto Social do Governo Central 2002 a 2015. http://www.tesouro.fazenda.gov.br/documents/10180/318974/Gasto+Social+Governo+Central/c4c3d5b6-8791-46fb-b5e9-57a016db24ec, 6. 12. 2016.


Skoufias, Emmanuel (2017): Protecting the “New Poor” During Brazil’s Economic Crisis. The World Bank. 24. 2. 2017. http://blogs.worldbank.org/latinamerica/protecting-new-poor-during-brazil-s-economic-crisis, 9. 6. 2017.


Sousa, Jessé (2013): A Invisibilidade da Luta de Classe ou a Cegueira do Economicismo. In: Dawid Bartelt (ed.) A Nova classe Média como Conceito e Projeto Político. Rio de Janeiro: Fundação Heinrich Böll, 69-83.


Souza, Pedro Ferreira (2011): Poverty, Inequality and Social Policies in Brazil, 1995-2009. Brasília: IPEA.


Rocha, Sonia (2015): Poverty Studies in Brazil – A Review. Discussion Paper 61. Brasília: IPEA.
Streeck, Wolfgang (2011): The Crisis of Democratic Capitalism. New Left Review 71, 5-29.


Stampini, Marco/Robles, Marcos/Sáenz, Mayra/Ibarrarán, Pablo/Medellín, Nadin (2015): Poverty, Vulnerability and the Middle Class in Latin America. IDB Working Paper Series No. 591. Washington: IDB.


UNDP (2014): Human Development Report 2014 – Sustaining Human Progress – Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. New York: UNDP.


UNDP (2016): Human Development Report 2016 Human Development for Everyone Briefing note for countries. Human Development Report Brazil. New York: UNDP.


Vara, Vauhini (2013): Who Belongs to the Lower Middle-Class, and Why Does It Matter? In: The New Yorker, December, 4th.

 

Brazil, new middle class, social development, social rights, social mobility

Contact
Mattersburger Kreis für Entwicklungspolitik
an den österreichischen Universitäten
Sensengasse 3
1090 Vienna, Austria

T +43 1 317 40 17
E office@mattersburgerkreis.at
Subscribe to our Newsletter
© 2015 Mattersburger Kreis für Entwicklungspolitik an den österreichischen Universitäten | Impressum
Display: