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Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 95-115https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-95
Iyer, Ivan

The ‘Abolishing’ of Manual Scavenging: Negotiations with Caste and Occupation in Ahmedabad

 

Despite laws prohibiting the occupation of manual scavenging, it is widely prevalent in India. While it is recognised as a hazardous and undignified occupation that involves the manual handling of excreta, it is also recognised as a form of caste-based discrimination that is performed by the lowest Dalit castes in India. In Ahmedabad, manual scavenging and sanitation work is performed by the Bhangis who lack access to alternative occupations and bear the brunt of untouchability. While sanitation workers, activists, NGOs and trade unions attempt to uncover the prevalence of manual scavenging in Ahmedabad, government bodies continue to deny the existence of manual scavenging and caste based discrimination as such. In this paper, I look at the ways in which the occupation of manual scavenging is articulated, contested and negotiated by the aforementioned actors in Ahmedabad.

 

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Laser, Stefan; Schlitz, Nicolas

Waste and Globalised Inequalities

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 233https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2
Laser, Stefan; Schlitz, Nicolas

Facing Frictions: Waste and Globalised Inequalities

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 5-32https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-5
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
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Introduction

Schulz, Yvan

Scrapping ‘Irregulars’: China’s Recycling Policies, Development Ethos and Peasants Turned Entrepreneurs

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 33-59https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-33
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

 Nowadays, ‘e-waste’, or discarded electrical and electronic equipment (DEEE), is synonymous with environmental degradation and global injustice. In China, the central government has come up with a series of regulations and policies in recent years to deal with the challenge posed by both foreign and domestic DEEE. It justified this programme by invoking the necessity to protect China’s environment. This article shows how Beijing’s efforts to ‘formalise’ DEEE collection and recycling concentrate activities in the hands of a limited number of large companies, and cause the exclusion of a myriad of actors and entities, in particular self-made entrepreneurs with roots in the Chinese countryside.

 

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e-waste, recycling, informal sector, exclusion, China

Schlitz, Nicolas

Recycling Economies and the Use-Value of Waste: Scrap Shops in Kolkata, India

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 60-94https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-60
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

Informal recycling networks in the Global South have stimulated debates about political economies of recycling in post-colonial contexts. This article retrieves the underrated Marxian notion of use-value to explore how used plastic materials are revalued in the plastic recycling networks of Kolkata, India. Focusing on the role of scrap shops within recycling networks, the relation between informal and formal economic spaces is discussed with reference to Sanyal’s (2007) distinction between needs-based and accumulation economies. It is argued that scrap shops perform the crucial role of translating concrete use-value of wasted plastics into new potential social use-value. Thereby, the analysis contributes to understanding the transformation of value between informal and formal economic space in post-colonial political economy of recycling in India.

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List of Interviews

 

Int2: small-size scrap shop; interview conducted in Old Kolkata on Nov. 19, 2016.

 

Int5: middle-size scrap shop; interview conducted in Old Kolkata on Nov. 25, 2016.

 

Int6: middle-size scrap shop; interview conducted in North Kolkata on Dec. 3, 2016.

 

Int7: small-size scrap shop; interview conducted in East Kolkata on Dec. 4, 2016.

 

Int8: small-size scrap shop; interview conducted in East Kolkata on Dec. 4, 2016.

 

Int9: middle-size scrap shop; interview conducted in East Kolkata on Dec. 4, 2016.

 

Int13: middle-size scrap shop; interview conducted in Old Kolkata on Dec. 10, 2016.

 

Int14: small-size scrap shop; interview conducted in Old Kolkata on Dec. 10, 2016.

 

Int17: big-size scrap shop; conducted in East Kolkata on Dec. 15, 2016.

 

Int22: middle-size scrap shop; interview conducted in East Kolkata on Jan. 19, 2017.

 

Int25: middle-size scrap shop; interview conducted in East Kolkata on Jan. 24, 2017.

 

Int26: big-size scrap shop; conducted in East Kolkata on Jan. 24, 2017.

 

Int30: small-size scrap shop; conducted in South Kolkata on Jan. 26, 2017. Int31: Kolkata Municipal Corporation; interview conducted on Jan. 30, 2017.

 

Int34: NGO representative; interview conducted in East Kolkata on Feb. 6, 2017.

 

Int37: Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology; interview in Haldia on Feb. 8, 2017.

 

Int42: plastic manufacturer; interview conducted in Old Kolkata on Feb. 14, 2017.

 

Int43: West Bengal Pollution Control Board; interview conducted on Feb. 17, 2017. WasteWalk3: WasteWalk conducted in Old Kolkata on Nov. 2, 2016

manual scavenging, caste-based discrimination, technological solutions, rehabilitation schemes, graded hierarchy of caste

 

de Carvalho Vallin, Isabella; Lopes Francelino Gonçalves Dias, Sylmara

The Double Burden of Environmental Injustice in a Female Waste Pickers Cooperative in Brazil

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 116-144https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-116
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

This   article   examines   the   relationship   between   the   environmental  injustice  and  the  consubstantiality  present  in  everyday  life  of  female waste pickers from a cooperative in Brazil. For the French materialist feminists perspectives, consubstantiality means intersection among class, race, and  gender.  In  this  case-study,  were  interviewed  16  female  waste  pickers  of  the  Rose  Cooperative  in  Flowers  Garden  Slum,  City  of  São  Paulo.  In  order  to  analyses  the  consubstantiality,  three  concepts  were  adopted:  urban  spatial  segregation to understand class aspects; racial division of labour for race; and, sexual  division  of  labour  for  gender  issues.  These  three  concepts  are  related  to environmental injustice and form the framework applied to analyse waste pickers’ housing conditions and workplaces. Environmental injustice in housing was identified. Environmental risks associated with the waste picking activity and the infrastructure conditions of the cooperative were also recognised. It has been observed that women are more exposed to risks on account of the double burden. The consubstantiality defines the daily life of the housing and working conditions of the female waste pickers. It was concluded that the female waste pickers are exposed to a ‘ double burden of environmental injustice’: one related to housing risks and the other one to the precariousness of their work.

 

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Secretaria Municipal do Verde e Meio Ambiente – SVMA/ Secretaria de Planejamento do município de São Paulo – SEMPLA (2002): Atlas ambiental do município de São Paulo. São Paulo.

Silva, Sandro Pereira/Goes, Fernanda Lira/Alvarez, Albino Rodrigues (2013): Situação social das catadoras e dos catadores de material reciclável e reutilizável. Brasília: Ipea.

 

Tavares, Rossana (2015): Indiferença: espaços urbanos de resistência na perspectiva das desigualdades de Gênero. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Urbanismos. Tese de doutorado.

 

Unger, Nancy. (2008). The Role of Gender in Environmental Justice. Environmental Justice, 1(3), 115-120. Villaça, Flávio (2011): São Paulo: segregação urbana e desigualdade. In: Estudos avançados 25(71), 37-58. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-40142011000100004

 

Wilson, David C./Rodic, Ljiljana/Scheinberg, Anne/Velis, Costas A./ Alabaster, Graham (2012): Comparative analysis of solid waste management in 20 cities. Waste Management & Research 30(3), 237-254. https://doi. org/10.1177/0734242X12437569

 

Wirth, I.G. (2013): Mulheres na triagem, homens na prensa: questões de gênero em cooperativas de catadores. São Paulo: Annablume/Fapesp.

 

List of interviews

 

Interview 1: slum dweller/waste picker [descripton, A.C.P.], 25 years old, white, 10/14/2016, translated by authors.

 

Interview 2: slum dweller/waste picker [descripton, M.C.S.], 37 years old, black, 10/14/2016, translated by authors.

 

Interview 3: slum dweller/waste picker [descripton, J.M.], 36 years old, black, 10/14/2016, translated by authors.

 

Interview 4: slum dweller/waste picker [descripton, H.D.S.], 48 years old, black, 10/21/2016, translated by authors.

 

Interview 5: slum dweller/waste picker [descripton, F.C.B.], 48 years old, black 10/21/2016, translated by authors.

 

Interview 6: slum dweller/waste picker [descripton, V.S.], 31 years old, white 10/28/2016, translated by authors

 

Interview 7: slum dweller/waste picker [descripton, R.E.F.], 25 years old, black 10/28/2016, translated by authors

 waste, informality, marginalisation, Global North/South

 

Hafner, Robert; Zirkl, Frank

Waste De_marginalised? A Comparative Analysis of the Socio-Economic Effects of In_formal Recycling Activities. Argentina, Brazil and Germany Revisited

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 145-167https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-145
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

Waste collection and recycling increasingly appears on the socioeconomic and political agenda both in the Global South and North. In the case of waste pickers, Latin America has a long-standing past of dealing with informal and marginalised activities, slowly making their way towards formalisation. In this paper we make two arguments. First, on a conceptual level, we highlight the implication of the semantics and synonyms of waste, which are then reflected in the ambivalence and de-dichotomised way of understanding de_marginalisation and the in_formal. Second, we empirically compare cases from Argentina and Brazil with Germany to highlight the pitfalls of Eurocentric perspectives on in_formal waste management.

 

Bierbrauer, Laura von (2011): Recuperadores urbanos. Abfallsammeln als Überlebensstrategie auf den Straßen von Buenos Aires. Berlin, Münster: LIT.

 

Boy, Martín/Paiva, Verónica (2009): El sector informal en la recolección y recuperación de residuos de la cuidad de Buenos Aires. 2001-2008. In: Quivera, 11(1), 1–11.

 

Braun, Joachim von/Gatzweiler, Franz (2014): Marginality - An Overview and Implications for Policy. In: Braun, Joachim von/Gatzweiler, Franz W. (eds.): Marginality. Addressing the Nexus of Poverty, Exclusion and Ecology. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-0077061-4_1

 

Brissac-Peixoto, Nelson (2009): Latin American Cities: the new urban formlessness. In: Biron, Rebecca (ed.): City/art. The urban scene in Latin America. Durham N.C.: Duke University Press, 233–250. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822390732011

 

Catterfeld, Philipp/Knecht, Alban (eds.) (2015): Flaschensammeln. Überleben in der Stadt. Konstanz, München: UVK Verlagsgesellschaft Konstanz.

 

Cheng, Lu-Lin/Gereffi, Gary (1994): The Informal Economy in East Asian Development. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18: 194–219. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1994.tb00262.x Demajorovic, Jaques/Lima, Márcia (2013): Cadeia de reciclagem. Um olhar para os catadores. São Paulo: SESC.

 

Grant, Richard (2015): Africa. Geographies of change, Oxford Univ. Press: New York, NY. Hafner, Robert (2014): handlung | macht | raum. Urbane MaterialsammlerKooperativen und ihre Livelihoods-Strategien in Buenos Aires. Wien, Berlin, Münster: LIT. IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística ) (ed., 2018): Perfil dos Municípios Brasileiros. Saneamento Básico. Rio de Janeiro.

 

International Labour Office (1972): Employment, incomes and equality: a strategy for increasing productive employment in Kenya: Geneva.

 

International Labour Office (1993): Report of the Conference. Fifteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Geneva, 19 - 28 January 1993.
164   
 

International Labour Office (2015): The changing nature of jobs. Geneva. Inverardi-Ferri, Carlo (2017): The enclosure of ‘waste land’. Rethinking informality and dispossession. In: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 26, 1–14.

 

Keller, Reiner (2009): Müll - Die gesellschaftliche Konstruktion des Wertvollen. Die öffentliche Diskussion über Abfall in Deutschland und Frankreich. Wiesbaden: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-531-91731-3

 

Komlosy, Andrea (2015): Informalität aus globalhistorischer Perspektive. In: Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, 31, 36–58. https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-314-36

 

Komlosy, Andrea/Parnreiter, Christof/Stacher, Irene/Zimmermann, Susan (1997): Der informelle Sektor: Konzepte, Widersprüche und Debatten. In: Komlosy, Andrea/Delapina, Franz (eds.): Ungeregelt und unterbezahlt. Der informelle Sektor in der Weltwirtschaft. Frankfurt: Brandes & Aspel/Südwind, 9–28.

 

Mahnkopf, Birgit/Altvater, Elmar (2015): Informelle Arbeit und das Leben in Unsicherheit. In: Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, 31, 12–35. https://doi. org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-31-4-12

 

Meagher, Kate (2003): A Back Door to Globalisation? Structural Adjustment, Globalisation & Transborder Trade in West Africa. In: Review of African Political Economy, 30: 57–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/03056240308374

 

Mesa, Pablo Edgardo (2010): Los recuperadores urbanos en la gran ciudad metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Buenos Aires: Prometeo Libros. Mingione, Enzo (1983): Informalization, restructuring and the survival strategies of the working class. In: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 7, 311–339. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1983.tb00597.x

 

Moore, Sarah A. (2012): Garbage matters. In: Progress in Human Geography, 36, 780–799. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132512437077

 

Moser, Caroline O.N. (1978): Informal sector or petty commodity production. Dualism or dependence in urban development? In: World Development, 6, 1041–1064. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(78)90062-1

 

Moser, Sebastian J. (2014): Pfandsammler. Erkundungen einer urbanen Sozialfigur. Hamburg: Hamburger Ed. HIS Verl.-Ges. Neuwirth, Robert (2012): Stealth of nations. The global rise of the informal economy. New York: Anchor Books. Oteng-Ababio, Martin/Amankwaa, Ebenezer Forkuo/Chama, Mary Anti (2014): The local contours of scavenging for e-waste and higher-valued constituent parts in Accra, Ghana. In: Habitat International, 43, 163–171. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.03.003

 

Oteng-Ababio, Martin/Owusu, George/Chama, Mary (2016): Intelligent enterprise. Wasting, valuing and re-valuing waste electrical and electronic equipment. In: The Geographical Journal, 182, 265–275. https://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12140

 

Pelc, Stanko (2017): Marginality and Marginalization. In: Chand, Raghubir/Nel, Etienne/Pelc, Stanko (eds.): Societies, Social Inequalities and Marginalization.


Marginal Regions in the 21st Century. Cham: Springer, 13–28. https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-319-50998-3_2

 

Pereira, Bruna Cristina Jaquetto/Goes, Fernanda Lira (2016): Catadores de materiais recicláveis. Um encontro nacional. Brasília, DF: IPEA. Phillips, Nicola (2011): Informality, global production networks and the dynamics of ‘adverse incorporation’. In: Global Networks, 11, 380–397. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1471-0374.2011.00331.x

 

Portes, Alejandro/Castells, Manuel (eds.) (1991): The informal economy. Studies in advanced and less developed countries. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins Univ. Pr. Roy, Anaya (ed.) (2004): Urban informality. Transnational perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia. Lanham Md.: Lexington Books. Samers, Michael (2005): The Myopia of “Diverse Economies”, or a Critique of the “Informal Economy”. In: Antipode, 37, 875–886. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.00664812.2005.00537.x

 

Samson, Melanie (2015): Accumulation by dispossession and the informal economy – Struggles over knowledge, being and waste at a Soweto garbage dump. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 33 (5), 813–830. https://doi. org/10.1177/0263775815600058 Schamber, Pablo (2009) Una Aproximación Histórica Y Estructural Sobre El Fenómeno Cartonero en Buenos Aires. Accessed January 1, 2019 from: http:// www.mininterior.gov.ar/asuntos_politicos_y_alectorales/incap/clases/Paper_ Schamber-1.pdf

 

Sicular, Daniel T. (1992): Scavengers, recyclers, and solutions for solid waste management in Indonesia. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California at Berkeley Sittel, Johanna/Berti, Natalia/Buffalo, Luciana/Schmalz, Stefan/Vidosa, Regina (2015): Reflexionen zum Informalitätskonzept am Beispiel der argentinischen Automobilindustrie. In: Journal für Entwicklungspolitik, 31, 59–82. https://doi. org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-31-4-59

 

Der Standard (Jan. 5th, 2018): China will keinen Plastikabfall aus Europa mehr. Suárez, Francisco (1998) Que las recojan y las lleven fuera de la Ciudad. Buenos Aires: Universidad de General Sarmiento. Trudeau, Dan/McMorran, Chris (2011): The Geographies of Marginalisation. In: Casino, Vincent J. Del/Thomas, Mary E./Cloke, Paul/Panelli, Ruth (eds.): A Companion to Social Geography. Malden, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 437–453. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444395211.ch25

 

Varley, Ann (2013): Postcolonialising informality? In: Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 31, 4–22. https://doi.org/10.1068/d14410 Yiftachel, Oren (2009): Theoretical Notes On ‘Gray Cities’. The Coming of Urban Apartheid? In: Planning Theory, 8, 88–100. https://doi. org/10.1177/1473095208099300

Zirkl, Frank (2007): Die Bedeutung der urbanen Ver- und Entsorgung für eine nachhaltige Stadtentwicklung in Brasilien. Das Fallbeispiel Curitiba. Tübingen: Geograph. Inst. der Univ. Tübingen.

 waste, informality, marginalisation, Global North/South

 

Eitel, Kathrin

Matter in and out of Place: A Story About Wastefulness, Hybridity, and Flows of Plastic (Photo Essay)

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 166-196https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-167
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

Plastics are in our oceans, creating garbage islands, contaminating seawater, and are a serious threat to the world’s environment. Therefore, plastic and its debris are highly visible in scientific and societal discourses and common knowledge. Looking from a different perspective of waste and its debris, especially in its relation to question of what is (from) human and what not, we may, from a phenomenological perspective, examine different angles of the visibility and non-visibility of plastic. The unwanted, or the dirt, which is called a ‘matter out of place’, according to Mary Douglas, is omnipresent. But if dirt is out of place for one person, couldn’t it conversely then be in place for someone else? The following photo-essay aims to answer this question while focusing on the visibility and invisibility of material waste in its environment. Concretely, it allows an insight into the ecology of waste.

Barad, Karen (2007): Meeting the Universe Halfway. Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning. Durham: Duke Univ. Press. https://doi. org/10.1215/9780822388128

 

Discard Studies (2019): Social studies of waste, pollution & externalities. https:// discardstudies.com/what-is-discard-studies/, 03.01.2019.

 

Douglas, Mary (2001 [1966]): Purity and Danger. An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge.

 

Gigault, Julien / Halle, Alexandra Ter / Baudrimont, Magalie / Pascal, PierreYves / Gauffre, Fabienne / Phi, Thuy-Linh / El Hadri, Hind / Grassl, Bruno / Reynaud, Stéphanie (2018): Current opinion: What is a nanoplastic? In: Environmental Pollution 235, 1030–1034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.024

 

Hawkins, Gay (2006): The Ethics of Waste. How We Relate to Rubbish. Lanham u. a.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. Jambeck, Jenna R. / Geyer, Roland / Wilcox, Chris / Siegler, Theodore R. / Perryman, Miriam / Andrady, Anthony / Narayan, Ramani / Law, Kara Lavender (2015): Marine pollution. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. In: Science 347/6223, 768-771. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260352

 

Reid, Alex / Haissoune, Amick / Ferber, Paul (2017): Koh Seh Environmental Assessment. Marine Survey Report. https://www. marineconservationcambodia.org/blogs-news-and-history/mcc-newsupdates/150-2017-marine-survey-reports-koh-seh-man-prang-and-angkrong, 03.01.2019.

Photo-Essay

Liboiron, Max

Max Liboiron. Discard Studies: Doing Science Differently (Interview)

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 197-216https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-197
  • Abstract
  • Keywords

The interview with Max Liboiron, managing editor of Discard Studies and director of the Civic Laboratory for Environmental Action Research (CLEAR), deals with the establishment of the blog Discard Studies, the principles and practices of the feminist, anti-colonial research lab CLEAR (Civic Laboratory for Environmental Action Research), and a critical perspective on waste and plastic pollution. Liboiron is a feminist environmental scientist, based at Memorial University, who works with innovative methods and considers herself an activist. Our conversation functions as an alternative introduction to matters of waste and globalised inequalities.

Interview

Laser, Stefan

Who Carries the Weight of Digital Technologies? What is its Weight Anyway? (Essay)

Sprache: ENGLISHSeiten: 217-227https://doi.org/10.20446/JEP-2414-3197-35-2-217
  • Abstract
  • Literatur
  • Keywords

“Reassembling Rubbish: Worlding Electronic Waste” (2018, MIT Press) is the new book of Canadian geographer Josh Lepawsky. It comes with a plea for a new kind of politics, and it tackles fundamental ethical questions, most importantly: what is the right thing to do with e-waste? The discussion about e-waste in Europe is still in its infancy, especially when we compare it to the numerous books and articles that discuss the information economy via themes such as Big Data or automation. This is a pity, because Lepawsky shows us that we can learn more about these very things through the lens of discarded electronics. After all, a lot is at stake: reducing the overall amount of toxic waste, while also tackling inequalities that are inscribed in the global recycling industries of e-waste.

Bataille, Georges (1985): Visions of Excess: Selected Writings 1927–1939. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Gabrys, Jennifer (2011): Digital Rubbish: A Natural History of Electronics. New. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. https://doi.org/10.3998/ dcbooks.9380304.0001.001


Gille, Zsuzsa (2007): From the Cult of Waste to the Trash Heap of History: The Politics of Waste in Socialist and Postsocialist Hungary. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

 

Jackson, Steven (2014). Rethinking Repair. In: Gillespie, Tarleton /Boczkowski, Pablo J./ Foot, Kirsten A. (eds.): Media Technologies: Essays on Communication, Materiality, and Society. Cambridge: MIT Press, 221–239. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262525374.003.0011

 

Latour, Bruno (2005): Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-NetworkTheory. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

 

Law, John (2004): After Method: Mess in Social Science Research. London: Routledge Chapman & Hall.

 

Lepawsky, Josh (2014): The Changing Geography of Global Trade in Electronic Discards: Time to Rethink the e-Waste Problem. In: The Geographical Journal 181 (2), 147–159. https://doi.org/10.1111/geoj.12077

 

Lepawsky, Josh (2018): Reassembling Rubbish: Worlding Electronic Waste. Cambridge: MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/11111.001.0001

 

Lepawsky, Josh/Mcnabb, Chris (2010): Mapping International Flows of Electronic Waste. In: The Canadian Geographer 54 (2), 177–195. https://doi.org/10.1111/ j.1541-0064.2009.00279.x

 

Liboiron, Max (2018): The What and the Why of Discard Studies. In: Discard Studies. September 1, 2018. https://discardstudies.com/2018/09/01/the-whatand-the-why-of-discard-studies/, 28.02.2019.

 

MacBride, Samantha (2011): Recycling Reconsidered: The Present Failure and Future Promise of Environmental Action in the United States. Cambridge: MIT Press. https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/8829.001.0001

 

Minter, Adam (2013): Junkyard Planet: Travels in the Billion-Dollar Trash Trade. London et al.: Bloomsbury Press.

 

Oteng-Ababio, Martin/van der Velden, Maja (2019): “Welcome to Sodom” – Six Myths about Electronic Waste in Agbogbloshie, Ghana. SMART. January 16, 2019. https://www.smart.uio.no/blog/welcome-to-sodom.html, 29.02.2019.

 

Sormani, Philippe/Bovet, Alain/Strebel, Ignaz (eds., 2019): Repair Work Ethnographies: Revisiting Breakdown, Relocating Materiality. Singapore: Springer Singapore.

Review-Essay

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